PHILOSOPHY

 


Bioethics

Bioethics is a shared interdisciplinary, reflective attitude and action that examines ethical issues in health, health and health policy. We are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationship between life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law and philosophy.

Bioethics recognises knowledge of values ​​and cause-effect as important elements. Bioethics challenges old ethical standards that have been passed down in different professions, and often without question. About 40 years ago it became apparent that society needed a more public and more critical discussion about these standards. Bioethics raises new questions about the old standards and attitudes, such as self-determination and use of placebo and treatment of pain. The discussion is open to not just scientists and doctors, but patients, not just researchers and politicians, but the general public

There are four accepted "prima facie" principles in bioethics. These point out that, regardless of our personal philosophy, politics, religion, moral theory or lifestyle, we will not find any problems committing ourselves to the four "prima facie" principles:

  • 1. Respect for Autonomy
    Each individual ought to choose which action they regard as most in line with their beliefs. In other words they have the right to know what is being done to them – and to refuse. They should always have the freedom to influence and choose which treatment they want.
  • 2. Beneficence
    Act in the best interests of the individual seeking help
  • 3. Non-malificence
    Do no harm
  • 4. Justice
    Treat others as equals

Neuroethics

Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary research area that focuses on ethical issues raised by our increased and constantly improving understanding of the brain and our ability to monitor and influence it, as well as on ethical issues that emerge from our deepening understanding of the biological bases of agency and ethical decision-making. While many questions and methods within neuroethics are similar to those in biomedical ethics, neuroethics deals with brain-specific issues that touch no other area of science — our sense of self, our personalities, and our behavior. Neuroethics links the science — what we can do — with the question of what we should do, which is guided by individual and shared value systems.